Sociology Paper


Do Whites Pay for Homework?

Invisibility of whiteness according to these three writers refers to the concept which is largely focused on three different ideas. One of them is based on the fact that there is a perception of white, blacks and what the writers have concerning the opinions contained by the earlier two groups. The interpretation will be based on these three so as to understand what the authors meant when they stated the statement on the invisibility of the whiteness. It is important to understand what whiteness means in this context. This implies the kind of the privileges and the invisible powers the whites have over the black, by the whites themselves they do takes these privileges for granted by not coming out clear and lead the way they are supposed to be. Again, these range from their power over the blacks and the fact that they have a right to offer their opinion, and they can be heard if they come out open. The other perception of the invisibility of whiteness is based on the idea of the continuing denial of whiteness as privilege through a constant refusal to race as an important issue. The authors, therefore, unfold the reason why there is the invisibility of whiteness. Peggy Mclntosh states that the whites are carefully taught not to make recognitions of the whites privileges (Mclntosh, 2004), which is also what we called colorblind.  She further states that the she began to make enquiries on what it felt like to have the white and she was able to realize that the white privilege is as invisible package that has unearned assets that can continue to remain obvious to a white man, In the sense that they will have them even when they are not recognized to exist (Mclntosh, 2004). Laura Pulido on the other hand clearly states that the white privilege is highly structured and spatial form of racism. It is a process that tends to cut out the other races subconsciously, because they will feel like they are not valuable and worthy to exist in the world, and to the whites, it is not something that they treat with any strange reactions. This takes place due to the manner in which they will be brought up knowing that things ought to be the way they are trained to be superior to other races (Pulido, 2010).


Studying the whiteness is an important concept that tends to draw its focus on the research and the definition of race. The study of whiteness allows switching the focus to white and how they have perpetuated a dominant culture and racial hierarchy. This means that through the research of whiteness, one can understand the origins of the social construction of the white identity and the manifestation that the writers present. By studying whiteness, it is possible to trace the evolution of the legally defined line that exists between the whites and the blacks.  In a link to the colonial government efforts, it is a preventive measure that can be used to curb the cross-racial revolts that mainly took place among the unpaid laborers. Whiteness studies are also important as they are a historic reflection that present the effects on the present and are inspired by post-modern manifestations and history. It was a concept that was constructed to justify any discrimination that was among the non-whites. Through the critical whiteness studies, it is possible for the theorist to make an overlap between critical whiteness studies and critical race theory (Johnson, 2006). Studying whiteness was a tool of racial power. Race in itself has been grounded due to the human brain’s perception of skin color without considering other factors that might have led to the current condition of the individual. There are various factors that have been assumed by looking only and rating someone based on the appearance and the language they speak (Johnson, 2006).

Human genetics does not differ in any way among the individuals of different races. Therefore, the idea of separating some individuals and underrating them is very inhuman.  For instance, sentencing of some people to death because of the inability to do something is termed as self-interests for hate of some group of people, thus people need to value all individuals irrespective of the race (Johnson. 2006). Thus, as the SPLC and Florida school district firmly decided to terminate the school discipline which was based on the racial discriminatory, is very encouraging and all have to emulate the step boldly.


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The tittle explains the origin of the concept of whiteness versus that of the blacks. It portrays the role that the whites portrayed and how they were able to remain and become superior to other races. In what has been portrayed in this section, it is evident that the main issue is linked to the fact that there was a rise in the number of immigrants from Africa who were coming into the white‘s community. A majority of the immigrants came in as slaves and were known to be of a lower status when compared to the whites. It was after the arising of the non-whites who sought equal rights with the whites, which then there was the concept of whiteness. They believed that they were on a different level hen compared to the blacks who were seeking to gain equality and competitive ground. However, the whites, on the other hand, knew that since it was their land, and they had all the authority to own it, and then it was a subconscious act to take up the concept of whiteness. It’s a legal right for the whites to come and create rules that would oppress the blacks since they were doing it in their territory. Furthermore, whites were able to create a perception of control and authority that was to them a right and to the blacks a means of suppressing them in their capacity. This trend proved to be hostile because the blacks were entirely mistreated.



The social construction of the concept of whiteness has been linked to social status. As stated by Bois (1920), the discovery of personal whiteness was a thing that was developed by the modern people and is a modern concept of the 19th and the 20th century. It was coined as a discipline that was used to examine the manner in which the whites, the native, and the blacks emerged as to interact on matters of slavery, colonialism, and industrial labor. The Race is among one of the wide ranges of discussion being dealt with through social construction as it has been a negative influence in a society where conflicts have emerged due to racism. It is believed that the skin color of an individual can lead to them being mistreated, being denied certain rights and living a below average life, in general. The skin color of an individual could have certain consequences such as discrimination could lead to unequal distribution of resources and power as well. This mean that in every kind of human relations, the skin complexion of an individual could be used as a determinant of the kind of treatment they will receive. Looking at race in a social construction concept, one can be able to explain the human decisions, culture that exerts pressure in the study of racial differences. For instance, the statement by the teacher of the Texas elementary school, clearly indicates that this is an issue that has to be handled carefully, to ensure that the black students do not feel inferior in their careers.

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Privilege is in most cases defined in a way that it indicates that it is a compulsory tool. It is portrayed as an exercise that exists and belongs to most parts of our lives. The definition by Wildman and Davis is based on several elements. These include the characteristics that are attached to privilege where it is a group defined to fit certain social norms that often benefit those that are in the privilege group. The second is the reliability that has been attached to privilege whereby it only benefits those that are objecting to avoid oppression. These two reasons linked to a social norm and the implicit choices that are to ignore the oppression mean that the privilege is not seen by the holder of the privilege such as the whites.


Allan G. Jonson explains that one of the privileges of the paradoxes that surround privilege is that despite the fact that it is received by individuals; the granting has no association with who the individuals are as a person (Johnson, 2006). This explanation can mean that the individual could feel as though they are accepted, and they are part of a community that is expressing privileges; however, the individual needs are not met. This means that the society only focuses on those that are directly affected by the privileges and those that are in the community and are not affected will not be impacted. Impacts that one is being treated as well as what they expect means that there is a need to let them receive the share of the privileges (Johnson, 2006). Therefore, in the thoughts of Johnson, he shows that it is an issue to be in a community where you feel privileged, and yet you are not a part of the privilege (Johnson, 2006). More clearly, the incidences where the white students  who have black student friends, they will not be able to appreciate the mistreatments their fellow friends go thorugh.



Johnson, A. G. (2006) Privilege, Power, and Difference. New York: McGraw-Hill

Mclntosh, P. (2004).” White privilege: Unpacking the invisible Knapsack” Race, Class, and Gender in the United States, ed. Paula S. Rothenberg, Sixth Edition. NY: Worth Publishers, pp. 188-192

Pulido, L. (2004). “Rethinking Environmental Racism: Whiteness Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90(1): 12-40

Rothenberg, Paula S. (2015). White Privilege. Place of publication Not identified: Worth Pub. Print